L’histoire de l’architecture regorge de projet utopiste qui permettrait de créer la société parfaite. Comment ces projets ont-ils été imaginé, schématisé?

“ Indeed it would be a truism to say that all utopias are, of necessity, diagrammatic. The various spatial relations that embody the ideal society have often been literally described in this way: the “plan” of Sforzinda is less a plan, in the sense of an ideal city plan, than a diagram…. And, as the late Louis Marin has demonstrated, the complex organization of Thomas More’s Utopia is revealed most clearly in the diagram, as if it was initially conceived as such. “ –Anthony Vilder

Garden City, Ebenezer Howard

The Three Magnets – Ebenezer Howard’s diagram illustrating the advantages of the garden city. Diagram from Ebenezer Howard’s To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898), reprinted in 1902 as Garden Cities of Tomorrow Date: 1898

No-stop city, Archizoom Associati

Utopia, Thomas Moore

Utopia plan by Thomas Moore
Utopia rota plan redrawn by Christophe Lueder

La ville pour 3 millions d’habitants, Le Corbusier

Sforzinda, Filarete

In terms of planning, each of the outer points of the star had towers, while the inner angles had gates. Each of the gates was an outlet of radial avenues that each passed through a market square, dedicated to certain goods. All the avenues finally converged in a large square which was centrally located. The town contained three squares: one for the prince’s palace, one for the cathedral, and one for the market. Because the Italian Renaissance was much taken with the idea of the canal town, in Filarete’s Sforzinda every other street had a canal for cargo transport. The canal system also connected with the river, and thus the outside world, for the import and export of goods. The city also contained many buildings, including parishes and separate schools for boys and girls. An example of a building that appears in the treatise is Filarete’s House of Vice and Virtue, a ten-story structure with a brothel on the bottom and an academy of learning on the higher levels. Filarete did much study on representation of Vices and Virtues, and there are suggestions that his radial design for the city was inspired by St. Augustine’s “Earthly City”, whose circular shape was divided into sections, each of which had its own Vice and Virtue. (source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sforzinda)

Plug in city, Archigram